Key Terms #1

Grammar: A way of describing what language does. Understanding what things go together, under what circumstances, and why.

Rhetoric: The way grammatical elements work together to create certain effects.

English as A Verbal-Medial Language: Verbs typically occur in the middle of the sentence. Most world languages are verb-frontal languages.

Noun Cluster: Naming words plus its attendants, the words that pattern with, modify, or describe it.

Subject: Initial noun or noun cluster. Also known as an agent in the S-V-O sentence pattern.

Verb: Refers to action in the sentence. Associated with the subject, and asks the question Who? Whom? or What? and needs something more to complete it.

Direct Object: A noun that follows the verb and answers the question Whom? or What? Part of a larger group of words called complements/completers.

Complements: Work with subjects and verbs to impart information and to create complete grammatical structures or sentences.

Transitive Verbs: Verbs that take an object and transfer some kind of action from subject to object.

Prepositional Phrase: Remains outside of the structure of any sentence pattern and aren’t considered elements or constituents of the pattern. They enhance and elaborate the pattern, and make it more interesting.

Phrasal Preposition: Prepositions patterned together to act as a unit to create variations on the original meaning of the preposition. (i.e. of is a prepositional phrase, instead of is a phrasal preposition)

Indirect Object: Element intervening between the verb and direct object. Answers the question To/For whom? or To/For what?

Objective Complement: Complement of the direct object. Nouns that refer to or rename the direct object. Has the same referent as the direct object, that is, it refers to the same person or thing.

Appositive: Noun that patterns with and renames another noun. Side-by-side with the noun it relates to (in apposition). You can omit an appositive but not an objective complement without changing the meaning of the sentence.

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