Predicate Noun: Noun that renames the subject & occurs after the verb (in the predicate). Its purpose is to rename the subject.
Linking Verb: A verb that joins the subject to the complement. Subjects and complements have the same referents in sentences with linking verbs.
Predicate Adjective: Adjective that describes or modifies the subject and occurs after the verb. As with predicate nouns, it has the same referent as the subject, and is joined to it by a linking verb.
Intransitive Verb: A verb with no complement. Also known as an intransitive complete because it is complete in itself. Prepositional phrases or adverbial words may be added on after the verb, but they do not complement it.
The sun shone brightly.
Form Classes: Major sentence building blocks that carry most of the meaning of a sentence. The classes are noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. Together with structure words, they constitute the English vocabulary.
Structure Words: The cement that joins form class words and makes their relationships clear. Do more to link, enhance, and clarify than present concepts. Includes pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, expletives, intensifiers, auxiliaries, and interrogatives.
Noun Clusters: A noun plus any modifiers or words that pattern with the noun or relate to it in some way. Adjectives and determiners that enhance/restrict/define/amplify the noun.
Possessive Case: Form of a noun that describes or indicates possession of a material object, shown by adding an apostrophe and the letter s.
Adjective: Describes, limits, and/or tells us more about a noun. Most closely related to nouns and clustering with nouns.
Emphatic: Transforming a sentence patter to shift emphasis. Seen in adjectives that occur after the noun, usually in pairs.
Comparative Form: Adjective or adverb used when comparing two items that has more or -er attached.
Superlative Form: Adjective that compares more than two items by adding most or -est.
Determiners: Word preceding and signaling a noun to help determine or specify it. Includes articles, personal possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and quantitative words.