Verb Stem: The base form of a word, also known as infinitive. Appears as present tense, singular form of the verb. Has no endings (i.e. -ed or -ing)
Past Tense Form: Something that occurred immediately in the past, usually expressed by adding -ed, and occasionally -t.
Past Participle: Creates passive voice by patterning a verb form with have in the perfect tense, and be.
First/Second/Third Person: First person refers to the one speaking (I). Second refers to the one being addressed (you). Third refers to a person talked about, as if they were not present (he/she/it/they).
Indicative: A verb that indicates, points out, states ideas or presents information. Most common mode.
Imperative: Commands and gives orders. Subject is often omitted.
Subjunctive: Also known as conditional. Ideas contrary to fact, in the realm of the imagined, or articulating something wishful/anticipatory
Aspect: Whether the verb’s action is completed or ongoing. Also known as tenses. Perfect or progressive are two aspects.
Perfect: Tense created with a form of have + past participle of the verb. Shows ongoing action that is completed.
Progressive: Tense created with a form of be + present participle of the verb. Shows ongoing action, even if it occurs in the past (i.e. I was opening the door…).
Phrasal Verb: A verb + a particle (i.e. break in, wear out).
Particle: A preposition that follows a verb and subtly affects its meaning. Does not have an object (noun), like a preposition.
Verb Cluster: Composed of verbs, their auxiliaries, most common modifiers (adverbs), and words that modify or pattern with them.
Auxiliary Verb: Also known as helping verbs. Pattern with main verb to create perfect & progressive tenses, passive voice, and conditionality. Largely composed of do, be and have.
Modal: Verb forms that express conditions applying to main verbs. Only used as auxiliaries. Can help main verb express possibility, probability, obligation, necessity, and anticipation.