Burch p. 111

The bull, striking the wood from side to side with his horns,(P) made a great noise. Then I saw a dark muzzle and the shadow of horns, and then, with a clattering (G) on the wood in the hollow box, the bull charged and came out into the corral, skidding with his forefeet in the straw as he stopped, (P) his head up, (NA) the great hump of muscle on his neck swollen tight, (NA) his body muscles quivering as he looked up at the crowd on the stone walls. (NA) The two steers backed away against the wall, their heads sunken, (NA) their eyes watching the bull. (NA)

Over his lavender collar, crushed upon a purple necktie, (P) held by a diamond hoop: (P)over his ammunition belt of tooled (P) leather worked in silver, buckled cruelly around his gasping middle: (P) over the tops of his glossy shoes Braggioni swells with ominous ripeness, his mauve silk hose stretched taut, (NA) his ankles bound with the stout leather thongs of his shoes. (NA)

The firemen drew near at 3am, walking through the powdery light in their bunker gear, (P)their Irish and Italian names sparkling in reflective tape at the bottom of their jackets. These were the walking angels (G) of the city.

Leaning over the balcony railing, (P) I see the waiters, dressed in white jackets, (P) already arranging chairs on the sidewalk. (P) A boy, his face hidden by the ample hood of a burnoose, (NA) is bicycling with difficulty toward the grocery store next to the café. Hung over the bar handles (P) are two straw baskets overloaded with fat loaves of bread. Bread is the gift of Allah.

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Key Terms #3

Verb Stem: The base form of a word, also known as infinitive. Appears as present tense, singular form of the verb. Has no endings (i.e. -ed or -ing)

Past Tense Form: Something that occurred immediately in the past, usually expressed by adding -ed, and occasionally -t.

Past Participle: Creates passive voice by patterning a verb form with have in the perfect tense, and be.

First/Second/Third Person: First person refers to the one speaking (I). Second refers to the one being addressed (you). Third refers to a person talked about, as if they were not present (he/she/it/they).

Indicative: A verb that indicates, points out, states ideas or presents information. Most common mode.

Imperative: Commands and gives orders. Subject is often omitted.

Subjunctive: Also known as conditional. Ideas contrary to fact, in the realm of the imagined, or articulating something wishful/anticipatory

Aspect: Whether the verb’s action is completed or ongoing. Also known as tenses. Perfect or progressive are two aspects.

Perfect: Tense created with a form of have + past participle of the verb. Shows ongoing action that is completed.

Progressive: Tense created with a form of be + present participle of the verb. Shows ongoing action, even if it occurs in the past (i.e. I was opening the door…).

Phrasal Verb: A verb + a particle (i.e. break in, wear out).

Particle: A preposition that follows a verb and subtly affects its meaning. Does not have an object (noun), like a preposition.

Verb Cluster: Composed of verbs, their auxiliaries, most common modifiers (adverbs), and words that modify or pattern with them.

Auxiliary Verb: Also known as helping verbs. Pattern with main verb to create perfect & progressive tenses, passive voice, and conditionality. Largely composed of do, be and have.

Modal: Verb forms that express conditions applying to main verbs. Only used as auxiliaries. Can help main verb express possibility, probability, obligation, necessity, and anticipation.

Key Terms #2

Predicate Noun: Noun that renames the subject & occurs after the verb (in the predicate). Its purpose is to rename the subject.

Linking Verb: A verb that joins the subject to the complement. Subjects and complements have the same referents in sentences with linking verbs.

Predicate Adjective: Adjective that describes or modifies the subject and occurs after the verb. As with predicate nouns, it has the same referent as the subject, and is joined to it by a linking verb.

Intransitive Verb: A verb with no complement. Also known as an intransitive complete because it is complete in itself. Prepositional phrases or adverbial words may be added on after the verb, but they do not complement it.
The sun shone brightly.

Form Classes: Major sentence building blocks that carry most of the meaning of a sentence. The classes are noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. Together with structure words, they constitute the English vocabulary.

Structure Words: The cement that joins form class words and makes their relationships clear. Do more to link, enhance, and clarify than present concepts. Includes pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, expletives, intensifiers, auxiliaries, and interrogatives.

Noun Clusters: A noun plus any modifiers or words that pattern with the noun or relate to it in some way. Adjectives and determiners that enhance/restrict/define/amplify the noun.

Possessive Case: Form of a noun that describes or indicates possession of a material object, shown by adding an apostrophe and the letter s.

Adjective: Describes, limits, and/or tells us more about a noun. Most closely related to nouns and clustering with nouns.

Emphatic: Transforming a sentence patter to shift emphasis. Seen in adjectives that occur after the noun, usually in pairs.

Comparative Form: Adjective or adverb used when comparing two items that has more or -er attached.

Superlative Form: Adjective that compares more than two items by adding most or -est.

Determiners: Word preceding and signaling a noun to help determine or specify it. Includes articles, personal possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and quantitative words.

Key Terms #1

Grammar: A way of describing what language does. Understanding what things go together, under what circumstances, and why.

Rhetoric: The way grammatical elements work together to create certain effects.

English as A Verbal-Medial Language: Verbs typically occur in the middle of the sentence. Most world languages are verb-frontal languages.

Noun Cluster: Naming words plus its attendants, the words that pattern with, modify, or describe it.

Subject: Initial noun or noun cluster. Also known as an agent in the S-V-O sentence pattern.

Verb: Refers to action in the sentence. Associated with the subject, and asks the question Who? Whom? or What? and needs something more to complete it.

Direct Object: A noun that follows the verb and answers the question Whom? or What? Part of a larger group of words called complements/completers.

Complements: Work with subjects and verbs to impart information and to create complete grammatical structures or sentences.

Transitive Verbs: Verbs that take an object and transfer some kind of action from subject to object.

Prepositional Phrase: Remains outside of the structure of any sentence pattern and aren’t considered elements or constituents of the pattern. They enhance and elaborate the pattern, and make it more interesting.

Phrasal Preposition: Prepositions patterned together to act as a unit to create variations on the original meaning of the preposition. (i.e. of is a prepositional phrase, instead of is a phrasal preposition)

Indirect Object: Element intervening between the verb and direct object. Answers the question To/For whom? or To/For what?

Objective Complement: Complement of the direct object. Nouns that refer to or rename the direct object. Has the same referent as the direct object, that is, it refers to the same person or thing.

Appositive: Noun that patterns with and renames another noun. Side-by-side with the noun it relates to (in apposition). You can omit an appositive but not an objective complement without changing the meaning of the sentence.